Jaguar Jonze https://jaguarjonze.ffm.to/antihero-ep

#metoo Research Review and Possible Solutions for the Australian Music Industry

Written by: Leanne de Souza on 13 June 2021

TRIGGER WARNING: This article and pages it links to contains information about rape, sexual assault and/or violence which may be triggering to victim-survivors.

The Australian music industry has a problem. Men continue to pay unwanted sexual attention to women — men sexually harass and assault women in their places of work. Offices, venues, music festivals, industry conferences and events, in cars and tour vans.

Research, data, online activism and shared lived experiences of the problem have proliferated since 2017. This paper seeks to reveal the research and recommendations that propose solutions to end the harm caused to women through men’s behaviours.

The paper consolidates existing research and expert knowledge with the intention to inform industry leaders of where potential for solutions and next steps could be. It is hoped to inspire policy , programs and individual action that will move the industry forward in the direction of real, meaningful and lasting cultural change.

Scope & Limitations

This paper acknowledges the ongoing harm of colonisation on First Nations women.

Intersectionality recognises the different standpoints of identity that can overlap. First Nations identity, gender identity, sex, skin colour, race, refugee or asylum seeker background, language, age, disability, socio-economic status, geographic location, mental health and religion can all further expose a person to discrimination and harm.

The focus of this paper is on research and evidence concerning women’s experience of unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault at the hands of men in the Australian music industry.

I’ve chosen to use Dr Bianca Fileborn’s (Fileborn 2012; Fileborn & Barnes, 2019) definitions — ‘unwanted sexual attention’ to mean “any unwanted advances or behaviour interpreted as being sexual in nature and intent.” Sexual harassment and assault are defined as harm caused from all forms of intrusion, harassment and violence regardless of how ‘minor’ or ‘trivial’ they are perceived. The experience of victim-survivors is centred in the choice of proposed solutions and next steps.

It is acknowledged that, almost exclusively, the research available is focused on the lived experiences of cis gendered white women. Adoption of any solutions must be inclusive and considerate of First Nations women, Gender Non-Conforming (GNC) and People of Colour (POC), the LGBTQI community and women living with disabilities and mental health disorders.

It is acknowledged this review is not exhaustive or inclusive of all sources of knowledge regarding unwanted sexual attention, harassment or assault in the workplace or grassroots feminist activism. More research and resources are always welcome.

Background Context

A look in the rear-view mirror. Tarana Burke began using the phrase “Me Too” in 2006 to raise awareness of women who had been abused. Eleven years later, in 2017 #metoo went viral after a tweet by Alyssa Milano. The momentum of the #metoo movement has continued across the Australian Music Industry without a singular moment of reckoning to date.

In 2015 Music Victoria published the discussion paper Women in the Victorian Contemporary Music Industry. The survey results focused predominantly on pay inequality and briefly touched on some respondent’s raising issues of sexual harassment and assault.

Helen Marcou and advocacy group Save Live Australian Music (SLAM) were instrumental in the formation of the 2015 Victorian Government’s Sexual Assault and Harassment of Women in Licensed Venues Taskforce. The taskforce’s aim was to stamp out and prevent incidents of sexual assault and harassment in venues through policy and education. A recommendation was made that Music Victoria participate in the taskforce. Developed by the Live Music Roundtable, Music Victoria provide an online resource for Best Practice Guidelines for Live Music Venues. The guidelines were subsequently reviewed to incorporate a new chapter on sexual harassment.

In 2016, Senior Lecturer in the Music Industry program at RMIT in Melbourne Catherine Strong with musician and songwriter Evelyn Morris published “Spark and Cultivate”: LISTEN and Grassroots Feminist Activism in the Melbourne Music Scene (Strong & Morris, 2016). The article took a deep dive into the development and significant achievements of inclusive feminist activist collective LISTEN.

“LISTEN played a direct role in putting sexual assault and harassment back squarely on the policy agenda…this work is significant for the way in which it foregrounds the ongoing need for feminist action.” (Edmond, 2019, p81)

In September 2017 The Guardian reported on how the annual BIGSOUND conference was focused on solutions for gender inequity in the Australian music industry.

“Two of the big issues on the table this year revolved around gender: sexual assault and antisocial behaviour at festivals and in live music venues; and gender equality and diversity within the industry itself.” The Guardian, September 2017

Experienced women in the music industry: Helen Marcou; Stacey Piggott, Elspeth Scrine and Leanne de Souza provided insights regarding : preventative measures to curb sexual assault, violence and discrimination at live music events ; strength-based reforms ; the need for peer-to-peer conversations between men and women and for individual accountability. The article also again identified the groundwork, resources and work of LISTEN.

In March 2018, Kate Hennessy reported in The Guardian on the work of the band Camp Cope and Courtney Barnett in calling out the lack of women in Australian festival line-ups and the rise of #menomore across the music industry.

In September 2018 Live Performance Australia published an Australian Live Performance Industry Code of Practice to Prevent Workplace Discrimination, Harassment, Sexual Harassment and Bullying.

In March 2020, West Australia Music (WAM) released the Fair Play WA Report. Authored by music research consultant Dr Christina Ballico, the report drew on industry and community survey data and feedback from the WAM board, staff and wider WA music community. Recommendation 3.7 called for a public awareness campaign for zero tolerance of sexual harassment at music venues.

In July 2020, artist Jaguar Jonze, AKA Deena Lynch worked alongside photographer Michelle Pitiris to reveal Melbourne photographer, Jack Stafford, had abused over 130 women.

On May 10, 2021 Deena Lynch again spoke out about sexual abuse and harassment on Channel 10s The Project where she detailed her assault by two record producers.

On May 11, 2021 The Industry Observer’s Poppy Reid published the story of four women alleging rape and assaults at BIGSOUND and live music venues.

On May 26, 2021 The Music Network’s Vivienne Kelly published details of a temporary volunteer working group, an outcome from the meeting of a narrow sub-set of the Australian music industry. The group are now tasked with the development of a ‘national consultation strategy’ to address sexual harm, harassment and systemic discrimination in the industry.

On June 13, 2021 The Sydney Morning Herald broke the news that Sony Music’s USA head office were investigating claims of discrimination, bullying and harassment at Sony Music Australia.

It is my hope that this paper supports, and educates. That it is helpful for all current and future leaders, consultants, facilitators, engagement activities, strategies, programs and frameworks that may be developed.

RESEARCH REVIEW

In August 2017, academic and composer Cat Hope delivered a keynote speech Stepping Aside: Gender equality and privilege in recent Australian music culture at the Women in Creative Arts Conference, Canberra. Hope’s speech focused on the “full and equal participation of women in the music industry” and the education that leads to that goal. Hope quoted the four basic principles of women’s equality from Anne Summers 1975 seminal book Dammed Whores and God’s Police: financial self-sufficiency, reproductive freedom, freedom from violence and the right to participate fully in all areas of public life — Hope did not speak directly to women’s freedom from unwanted sexual attention, harassment or assault in Australian music. She did note though that “sadly, sexual assault and harassment of women by men is an ongoing issue in popular and jazz music communities.”

Two research papers (neither peer-reviewed) provide research and evidence of the ‘problems’ women encounter in the Australian music industry. Jeff Crabtree’s 2020 philosophy doctoral thesis Tunesmiths and Toxicity: Workplace Harassment in the Contemporary Music Industries of Australia and New Zealand and the Professor of gender, work and employment relations at the University of Sydney Business School Rae Cooper et als 2017 Skipping a beat: Assessing the state of gender equality in the Australian music industry. Crabtree provided a range of “implications” for individuals, industry organisations and governments and proposes directions for future research, these are considered in the proposed solutions identified below. Cooper et al researched various dimensions of gender inequality in the Australian music industry, however, the scope was not inclusive of gendered problems of unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault.

Maura Edmond, a lecturer in Media Studies at Monash University, with Senior Research Team Leader at the Monash Gender and Family Violence Prevention Centre Dr Jasmine McGowan co-authored an essay for Overland in 2017. They reflected on nearly forty-years of reports and responses to Australia’s ‘gender gap’ in the cultural industries that repeatedly identified the same key obstacles : “motherhood, boys’ clubs, confidence gaps, earning gaps and leadership gaps.” (Edmond, 2019; Edmond & McGowan, 2017)

Edited by Sara Raine and Catherine Strong, the 2019 book Toward Gender Equality in the Music Industry Education, Practice an Strategies for Change takes a global approach and brings together research that considers the gender politics of the music industry. The book is focused on three areas: education; case studies that explore practices in the music industry; and activist spaces. Chapters by Maura Edmond and Bianca Fileborn with Ash Barnes are included and relevant for potential solutions for the Australian music industry to combat unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault on women by men — these are included in the analysis to follow.

Gender, Policy and Popular Music in Australia: ‘I Think the Main Obstacles are Men and Older Men’ (Edmond, 2019) analysed the recurring problems with gender equality policy and programs in the Australian Music industry and their ‘tendency to return to the same types of interventions and recommendations again and again.’ Edmond also explores how feminist and activist responses to the failure of policy challenges problematic policies and discussions. This include analysis of the key achievements of LISTEN, why Screen Australia’s Gender Matters Taskforce is a successful exception in Australian cultural policy and why the “pervasiveness of confidence discourses as a solution” require ongoing and careful scrutiny.

Dr Bianca Fileborn is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology, School of Social and Political Sciences at the University of Melbourne. Her work is broadly concerned with interrogating the intersections of identity, space, place, culture and experiences of violence. Her current work focuses on sexual violence and harassment and she has authored several peer reviewed papers, book chapters and reports. Her 2012 peer-reviewed article Sex and the City: Exploring Young Women’s Perceptions and Experiences of Unwanted Sexual Attention in Licensed Venues argued how broader social norms with the cultural conventions of licensed venues creates environments that facilitate incidents of unwanted sexual attention. Furthermore, Fileborn recognised that gender-based accounts of sexual violence are unable to ‘fully account for sexual violence that is perpetrated within and against GLBTIQ communities’ (Fileborn, 2014). Published in 2016 Fileborn’s book Reclaiming the Night-Time Economy explores the issue of unwanted sexual attention at length with chapters on identity, boundaries, sexual culture and consent, drugs and alcohol, space and control. Chapter 7 Taking Back the Night: Preventing Unwanted Sexual Attention is most relevant to this paper’s intention to identify possible solutions. In 2020 Gunby et al built upon Fileborn’s 2012 and 2016 research and explored strategies individuals can deploy to manage risk.

Dr Bianca Fileborn (Source: Twitter)

Fileborn also researched the impact bystander intervention and presented important findings of the complexities for bystander education in her 2017 paper, Bystander intervention from the victims’ perspective: experiences, impacts and justice needs of street harassment victims. (Fileborn, 2017a)

Co-authored with Wadds and Tomsen, in 2019 Fileborn published the Safety, Sexual Harassment and Assault at Australian Music Festivals: Final Report. Despite increasing anecdotal evidence that sexual violence occurs at music festivals, to date no research had addressed this issue. This pilot project established a research base in this area by investigating patron experiences and perceptions of sexual assault, harassment and safety at music festivals in Australia. Recommendations were included for festival policy and management, situated environments and broader culture change. These have been included in potential solutions below.

“Research on gender inequality, gender and sexual norms in the Australian music scene depicts a cultural context in which victim-survivor voices and experiences are systematically devalued, delegitimized and ‘othered’. The structural and cultural factors that underpin sexual violence form the core of the norms, values and structural elements of the Australian music industry. These systems arguably function to normalise sexual violence, and to provide excuses for such violence when it occurs, while at the same time devaluing victim-survivor narratives and experiences such that they are less likely to be believed if and when they speak out.” Fileborn & Barnes, 2019)

#metoo is a form of digital activism and online spaces such as @beneaththeglassceiling and @lineupswithoutmales are sites for informal justice. Fileborn 2017b and Mendes & Ringrose 2019 were both reviewed for the effectiveness of such sites and considered for solutions provided below.

Fileborn’s research in the area provides evidence that online spaces ‘can function as sites of justice’ but qualifies that ‘it is vital to ask for whom and in which contexts justice can be achieved online’ (Fileborn, 2017b). Online disclosure was shown to be a way for victim-survivors to form solidarity, receive support and resist the idea that they were responsible for what happened to them. Additionally, it can provide emotional release and transformation.

“Given that women (and other marginalised groups) are often excluded from mainstream or public dialogue (or, where they are included, their voices are muted or restrained), this shows the potential of online spaces to be claimed by women and other diverse groups as a counter-cultural space, and that online spaces can be actively valued and utilized by marginalised communities for this reason.” (Fileborn, 2017b, p 1493)

Fileborn’s research is clear on the value of online spaces but highlights the emotional burden this can also create. Online disclosure is a form of emotional ‘work’ or ‘labour’ that is gendered — ‘given that women are by and large the victims of harassment’. Victim-survivors sharing of experiences of unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault are only one component of an ‘ongoing justice process or journey’ (Fileborn, 2017b, p1498).

“Having a perpetrator held accountable for their behaviour, or less commonly, punished, are vital elements of justice. These are justice needs or interests that are, by and large, simply unable to be met in online spaces.” (Fileborn, 2017b, p 1497)

The sites available for victim-survivors to tell their stories have important implications for if, when and how they are heard and research shows they clearly function as a ‘pathway to meet elements of victim’s justice needs’ (Fileborn, 2017b). However, there are limitations for how online spaces, such as @beneaththeglassceiling can act as sites of justice. Inherent in the ability to safely share experiences online is dependent upon the victim-survivors agency, privilege and cultural capital. Diversity is a problem in online feminist spaces, ‘which are often dominated by white, middle-class, cisgender women’ (B. Fileborn, 2017b; Fotopoulou, 2016; Mendes & Ringrose, 2019).

Global research demonstrates consensus for the critical role of strong governance of the night-time economy. (Ashton, Roderick, Parry Williams, & Green, 2018; Burke & Schmidt, 2013; Roberts & Eldridge, 2009; Seijas & Gelders, 2021) This review has not detailed the evidence of these studies but recommends that the music industry state peak bodies have a vital role to play at the intersection of policies and governance frameworks to support, preserve and protect live music and advocate for the safety of women from unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault in music venues and entertainment precincts.

Dr Michael Flood (Source: QUT)

Dr Michael Flood is an Associate Professor at QUT. His research agenda focuses on gender, sexuality, and interpersonal violence and its prevention, particularly with reference to men. Floods 2019 book chapter Men and #metoo: Mapping Men’s Responses to Anti-violence Advocacy and his 2020 conference paper with survivor advocate Lula Dembele Putting Perpetrators in the Picture” are helpful when seeking solutions.

Flood argues that #metoo’s call to action for men has three tasks : listen to women; reflect on and change their own behaviours and every day relations with women and other men; and asks that men contribute to social change, ‘both by challenging other men and by contributing to wider efforts to shift the systemic gender inequalities that form the foundation of sexual harassment and abuse’ (Flood, 2019, p286).

Flood and Dembele presented a paper at the 2020 STOP Domestic Violence Conference. They argued that ‘violence is a problem for victims but not a victims’ problem’ and that perpetrators, and potential perpetrators must be held to account to act safely and with respect. Their paper focuses on how violence is framed, data collected and how prevention and reduction efforts are guided. They argue the current practices for framing sexual violence obscure perpetrators in three ways: removal of accountability; removal of responsibility to their community; and diminishes the attention on what social conditions drive the perpetration. Flood and Dembele are clear that there is no national or state data on the extent of sexual violence perpetration in Australia and that to redress this gathering data on violence perpetration is required.

“It is important to name those who perpetrate the violence, not just its victims. If we do not put perpetrators in the picture, we miss the opportunity to describe what is taking place, hold perpetrators accountable, examine social conditions that make the use of violence possible and address these conditions.” (Flood & Dembele, 2020)

In 2020 two senior lecturers, Sally Ann Gross and George Musgrave, from the University of Westminster published the book Can Music Make You Sick? Measuring the Price of Musical Ambition. Drawing on existing research across the social sciences and their own detailed study of recording and performing artists in the British music industry they proposed that making music can be therapeutic but making a career in the music industry can be traumatic. The findings were wide ranging and provide provocations for future research on mental health, wellbeing and working conditions in the music industries and across the creative economy. ‘Going beyond self-help strategies, they challenge the industry to make transformative structural change.’

Gross and Musgrave detail how ‘professional’ relationships in the music industry can be, at times, abusive and how the precarious nature of ‘work’ and working conditions intersect with sexual abuse and misogyny. Their research draws heavily on the 2006 work of Silvia Federici and the role of gendered issues in the ‘precariatisation of labour.’ Importantly, their research shows that the impact on professional relationships of women from sexual abuse are also economic ones. Considerations are made of what a ‘duty of care’ could be in the music industry and these are included below.

POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS

This research review informed the following potential solutions for the Australian music industry, its men, its leaders, organisations, victim-survivors and a collective value of care.

What Men Can Do

All men are crucial to the effort to end unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault of women.

A network is required to focus men on the following three strategies for action:

· Listen to women

· Change their own sexist and harassing behaviour

· Take collective action to prevent and reduce violence and abuse (Flood, 2019)

Michael Flood’s expertise advises that for men to do these three things, men themselves need to overcome their ‘socialized deafness to women’s experiences’, directly tackle the issue of unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault as of personal relevance and concern and prioritising the development of their own ‘gender-equitable skills and habits’ (Flood, 2019).

What Those Responsible for Organisations, Workplaces, Venues, Festivals and Industry Events Can Do

Women are required in policy development across all areas and at every level of the music ecosystem to ensure accountability.

Leadership

All industry board members, executives and company owners need to immediately recognise their informal and formal power. Without transparency and individuals’ taking responsibility and accountability the status quo will continue to proliferate, and women will be harmed.

“all music industry workers to source and attend professional development training that equips them to manage their engagements with colleagues in more appropriate ways. Professional development could include education in social awareness, informed consent, ethics, conflict resolution and empathy training.” (Crabtree, 2020 p 396)

Data Mapping

To provide vital knowledge the mapping of who perpetrates unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault — why, when, how and where — establish an ethical quantitative and qualitative data gathering project on the male perpetrators in the Australian music industry. (Crabtree, 2020; Jewkes, 2012; Sikweyiya & Jewkes, 2012; Sikweyiya, Jewkes, & Dartnall, 2013)

Festivals and Venues

It is difficult to identify which socio-cultural factors directly contribute toward unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault in music venues and festivals. Fileborn (2016) suggests ‘developing venue cultures that promote ethical sexual interactions’ and do not tolerate unwanted sexual attention.

“When venues generate an expectation that patrons will act in sexually ethical and respectful ways, venues limit the ability of perpetrators to take advantage of cultural assumptions regarding dress, flirtation, consumption of alcohol, and so forth as indicators of sexual availability or as proxies for consent.” (Fileborn, 2016 p242)

Music Victoria’s Best Practice Guidelines for Live Music Venues provides Victorian Crimes Act (1958) legal definitions and best practice for prevention and incident response of sexual harassment in licensed premises. Additionally, it provides communication advice and training resources and crisis service details.

The recommendations of the 2019 the Safety, Sexual Harassment and Assault at Australian Music Festivals: Final Report are clear and actionable and provide an immediate roadmap.

Policy and management recommendations include:

· clearer protocols and increased clear and consistent messaging

· more female police and security staff working on-site

· development of multiple avenues for reporting

· consistent and systemic documentation of all reported incidents of sexual violence

· follow through on reports with feedback to victim-survivors

· ready onsite access to support services, such as medics and trained counsellors

Environment recommendations include:

· provision of quiet ‘chill out’ and safe spaces

· ensuring the distribution of security/police throughout festival and campgrounds

· improved wayfinding and lighting in campgrounds and isolated areas

· visible signage of expected behavioural standards

· clearly signed locations for security staff in and around performance spaces

Industry Conferences and Events

The pandemic has changed the way industry conferences and events function. As ‘real world’ events return music industry conferences can adopt the above measure for venues and festivals and be explicit about the encouragement of pro-social behaviour.

For ‘online’ industry events the music industry could learn from the gaming industry to ensure equity of access, diversity and safety for women and non-binary people in online networking spaces. GIG — Games Industry Gathering zoom rooms are ‘diverse by design; calls are invite only affairs, and while any member of the industry may request an invite, there is careful curation to ensure that those minority communities don’t become minorities in the GIG.’

Bystander Education

Bystander education and intervention has a central role to play in prevention of unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault. Equipping bystanders with the ‘skills to recognise and intervene in incidents as they are occurring can be an important step to stop or prevent unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault from occurring. (Amar, Sutherland, & Laughon, 2014; Burn, 2009; Coker et al., 2016; B. Fileborn, 2016, 2017a; B. Fileborn, Wadds, P., & Tomsen, S. A. , 2019)

As the peak body for gender equity, women’s health and the prevention of violence against women Gender Equity Victoria have created an Online Active Bystander Project. An active online bystander is someone that says or does something when they see harassment and discrimination online.

A national approach to delivering bystander education is needed to shift the responsibility for prevention onto the broader Australian music industry.

Sexual Ethics Education

Ethics suggest what should and should not be done, it is the law that stipulates and enforces what can and cannot be done.

For women to not be targets of unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault preventative effort is required. This could be in the form of education programs and campaigns based on ethical and respectful sexual relationships (Fileborn, 2016).

An ethical way of behaving respects the subjectivity and the desires of another person, it ‘greatly reduces the likelihood that an unwanted advance is also a harmful one’ (Fileborn, 2016 p238). An ethical negotiation of consent requires ongoing and active communication and can include verbal and non-verbal communication skills (Carmody, 2005).

A national approach to delivering ethical consent education across all levels of the Australian music industry is needed.

Crisis Support

Support Act could provide a hotline dedicated for victim-survivors of sexual harassment and assault. The hotline would need to provide a triage service to encourage reporting of incidents, legal advice/action and therapeutic intervention and support (Crabtree, 2020).

What Victim-Survivors Can Do

It is vital that attention remains on the issue of unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault. @beneaththeglassceiling provides an online digital space to do so.

Practice respect, listening and recognition when sharing lived experiences with others in online spaces. Mendes and Ringrose (2019) identify these attributes as important for building ‘communities of care.’

Administrators need to be cognizant and inclusive of diversity and not allow domination of the narratives by white, middle-class, CIS gendered women.

Prioritise and practice self-care.

Play, write and recharge through the love of music.

What A “Duty of Care” Could Do

There are noises being made about the desire to develop (or extend) concepts of a ‘duty of care’ and/or mandatory ‘codes of conduct’ within the music industry (Gross & Musgrave, 2020 ; Crabtree, 2020).

· This could be widening the context of accountability for those ‘responsible’ for artists and employees — managers, agents, labels, publishers — to ensure that protection from unwanted sexual attention, harassment and assault are bound in the variety of contractual relationships that already exist (Gross & Musgrave, 2020).

· It could be a national ‘code of conduct’ framework led by peak industry organisations representative of managers, labels, agents, publishers, educators, songwriters and recording artists (Crabtree, 2020).

· It could dictate that organisations’ board members sign the code of conduct and it be enforceable through CEO performance agreements (Crabtree, 2020).

· Government funding could be contingent on recipients (individuals or organisations) on incorporating a signed mandatory code of conduct with the funding agreement. Furthermore, if the code is breached future funding to be withheld (Crabtree, 2020).

· Music industry conferences, festivals, events and venues could encourage an ‘ethic of care’ among patrons. (Fileborn, Wadds & Tomsen, 2019)

Women’s safety, health and wellbeing is a balance of personal and formal/structural responsibilities — these need to be acknowledged and embedded within any solution (Gross & Musgrave, 2020 ; Crabtree, 2020). Tensions will arise between individual responsibilities, professional liabilities and legalities — but caring is something we can all do.

“Caring more is something we all need to do; caring is the action we need to take when things matter.” (Gross & Musgrave, 2020 p 129)

NEED SUPPORT?

Support Act Helpline: 1800 959 500

1800RESPECT: 1800 737 732

Lifeline Hotline: 13 11 14 or text their helpline on 0477 13 11 14

SANE: 1800 187 263

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

In December 2021 Leanne de Souza will graduate with a Bachelor of Arts (Major, Digital and Media Cultures and Minors, Gender Studies and Australian Indigenous Studies) from the University of Queensland.

Leanne is Co-Owner and Non-Executive Director of Nightlife Music, a trustee of the Queensland Performing Arts Trust (QPAC), co-founder of the Rock and Roll Writers Festival (on hiatus) and Chair of the Electronic Music Conference Advisory Board.

In 2020, with Lydia Fairhall, Leanne explored a “Guardians of Purpose” models for releasing music in the next economy.

From 2016–2019 Leanne held the Executive Director role for the Association of Artist Managers (AAM), serving the broader music industry, building upon two decades working directly in frontline artist management.

Leanne is a life-member of Q Music and was awarded the 2019 National Live Music Award for “Excellence in Support of the Live Music Industry.”

References

Amar, A. F., Sutherland, M., & Laughon, K. (2014). Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault. J Forensic Nurs, 10(2), 84–91. doi:10.1097/JFN.0000000000000024

Ashton, K., Roderick, J., Parry Williams, L., & Green, L. (2018). Developing a framework for managing the night-time economy in Wales: a Health Impact Assessment approach. Impact assessment and project appraisal, 36(1), 81–89. doi:10.1080/14615517.2017.1364024

Ballico, C. with Willoughby, J. (2020) Fair Play WA Report Retrieved from https://wam.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Wam-Fair-Play-Report_double-page-WEB.pdf

Batchelor, J. (2021) How Games Industry Gathering became “the safest space on the internet” Retrieved from https://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2021-06-11-how-the-games-industry-gathering-became-the-safest-space-on-the-internet?fbclid=IwAR3kl0JD2d229yfTMw92xJ--_7JdCOtB2ht4cruOcxdUujwyNFflyj2X-4c

Burke, M., & Schmidt, A. (2013). How should we plan and regulate live music in Australian cities? Learnings from Brisbane. Australian planner, 50(1), 68–78. doi:10.1080/07293682.2012.722556

Burn, S. M. (2009). A Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander Intervention. Sex roles, 60(11), 779–792. doi:10.1007/s11199–008–9581–5

Carmody, M. (2005). Ethical Erotics: Reconceptualizing Anti-Rape Education. Sexualities, 8(4), 465–480. doi:10.1177/1363460705056621

Coker, A. L. P., Bush, H. M. P., Fisher, B. S. P., Swan, S. C. P., Williams, C. M. S., Clear, E. R. M. P. H., & DeGue, S. P. (2016). Multi — College Bystander Intervention Evaluation for Violence Prevention. Am J Prev Med, 50(3), 295–302. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.08.034

Cooper, N. (2021) Global Sony boss investigating bullying and harassment claims in Australia Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/culture/music/global-sony-boss-investigating-bullying-and-harassment-claims-in-australia-20210611-p5808l.html

Cooper, R., Coles, A., & Hanna-Osborne, S. (2017). Skipping a beat: Assessing the state of gender equality in the Australian music industry. https://doi.org/10.25910/5db1292d585d4

Crabtree, J. R. (2020). Tunesmiths and Toxicity: Workplace Harassment in the Contemporary Music Industries of Australia and New Zealand. (Doctor of Philosophy). University of Technology Sydney, Retrieved from https://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/148011

Edmond, M. (2019). Gender, Policy and Popular Music in Australia: ‘I Think the Main Obstacles Are Men and Older Men&#8217. In Towards Gender Equality in the Music Industry : Education, Practice and Strategies for Change (1 ed., pp. 73–88). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Edmond, M., & McGowan, J. (2017). We need more mediocre women. Overland(229), 81–87.

Federici, S. (2006). Precarious Labor: A Feminist Viewpoint. Variant UK. Retrieved from https://www.variant.org.uk/37_38texts/9PrecLab.html

Fell, S., J. (2017) ‘We’re over it’: Bigsound turns up the volume on gender gap in music industry. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/sep/09/were-over-it-bigsound-turns-up-the-volume-on-gender-gap-in-music-industry

Fileborn, B. (2012). Sex and the City: Exploring Young Women’s Perceptions and Experiences of Unwanted Sexual Attention in Licensed Venues. Current issues in criminal justice, 24(2), 241–260. doi:10.1080/10345329.2012.12035957

Fileborn, B. (2014). Accounting for Space, Place and Identity: GLBTIQ Young Adults’ Experiences and Understandings of Unwanted Sexual Attention in Clubs and Pubs. Critical criminology (Richmond, B.C.), 22(1), 81–97. doi:10.1007/s10612–013–9221–4

Fileborn, B. (2016). Taking Back the Night: Preventing Unwanted Sexual Attention. In B. Fileborn (Ed.), Reclaiming the Night-Time Economy: Unwanted Sexual Attention in Pubs and Clubs (pp. 231–244). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Fileborn, B. (2017a). Bystander intervention from the victims’ perspective: experiences, impacts and justice needs of street harassment victims. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 1(2), 187–204. doi:10.1332/239868017X15048754886046

Fileborn, B. (2017b). Justice 2.0: Street harassment victims’ use of social media and online activism as sites of informal justice. British journal of criminology, 57(6), 1482–1501. doi:10.1093/bjc/azw093

Fileborn, B., & Barnes, A. (2019). Setting the Stage for Sexual Assault: The Dynamics of Gender, Culture, Space and Sexual Violence at Live Music Events. In Towards Gender Equality in the Music Industry : Education, Practice and Strategies for Change (1 ed., pp. 89–102). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Fileborn, B., Wadds, P., & Tomsen, S. A. . (2019). Safety, Sexual Harassment and Assault at Australian Music Festivals: Final Report. Retrieved from

Flood, M. (2019). Men and #MeToo: Mapping Men’s Responses to Anti-violence Advocacy In #MeToo and the Politics of Social Change. (pp. 285–300). Springer International Publishing.

Flood, M., and Dembele, L. (2020). Putting perpetrators in the picture: Mapping the extent and character of violence perpetration in Australia. STOP Domestic Violence Conference, Gold Coast, December 2–4 2020.

Fotopoulou, A. (2016). Feminist Activism and Digital Networks Between Empowerment and Vulnerability (1st ed. 2016. ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK : Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gender Equity Victoria. (nd). Online Active Bystander Project. Retrieved from https://www.genvic.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/FINAL-GV_OABP_Toolkit_A3_V4_WEB.pdf

Gross, S. A.. Musgrave, G. (2020). Can Music Make You Sick, measuring the price of musical ambition: London University of Westminster Press.

Gunby, C., Carline, A., Taylor, S., & Gosling, H. (2020). Unwanted Sexual Attention in the Night-Time Economy: Behaviors, Safety Strategies, and Conceptualizing “Feisty Femininity”. Feminist criminology, 15(1), 24–46. doi:10.1177/1557085119865027

Gurvinder, G. & Rahman-Jones, I. (2020) Me Too founder Tarana Burke: Movement is not over Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-53269751

Hennessy, K. (2018) ‘You expect us not to call you out?’ — Camp Cope and the Australian musicians fighting industry sexism Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/music/2018/mar/08/you-expect-us-not-to-call-you-out-camp-cope-and-the-australian-musicians-fighting-industry-sexism

Hope, C. (2017) Stepping Aside: Gender equality and privilege in recent Australian music culture. Women in Creative Arts Conference, Canberra 2017. Retrieved from https://www.australianmusiccentre.com.au/article/stepping-aside-gender-equality-and-privilege-in-recent-australian-music-culture

Jaguar Jonze. (nd). Me Too, Me No More. Retrieved from https://jaguarjonze.com/metoo/

Jewkes, R., Dartnall, E. & Sikweyiya, UY. . (2012). Ethical and safety recommendations for research on the perpetration of sexual violence. Retrieved from Pretoria, South Africa: https://www.svri.org/sites/default/files/attachments/2016-04-13/EthicalRecommendations.pdf

Kelly, V. (2021) Music industry reveals initial outcomes of #MeToo meeting Retrieved from https://themusicnetwork.com/music-industry-metoo-meeting-actions/

Listen Listen Listen. (nd). Retrieved from https://www.listenlistenlisten.org/

Live Performance Australia. (2018) Australian Live Performance Industry Code of Practice to Prevent Workplace Discrimination, Harassment, Sexual Harassment and Bullying. Retrieved from https://liveperformance.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/LPA-Code-of-Practice-To-Prevent-Discrimination-Harassment-Sexual-Harassment-and-Bullying-Parts-A-B.pdf?fbclid=IwAR13rGvKrKbT31HljsqiT11g4Sa4PHpEmUjJBoT0psYfKyBDqAWYiyfdXyU

Mendes, K., & Ringrose, J. (2019). Digital Feminist Activism: #MeToo and the Everyday Experiences of Challenging Rape Culture in #MeToo and the Politics of Social Change. (pp. 37–51). Springer International Publishing.

Music Victoria. (2012) Women in the Victorian Contemporary Music Industry Discussion Paper Retrieved from https://www.musicvictoria.com.au/wp-content/uploads/bsk-pdf-manager/2019/08/Women-in-the-Victorian-Contemporary-Music-Industry.pdf

Music Victoria. (nd) Best Practice Guidelines for Live Music Venues, Sexual Harassment. Retrieved from https://www.musicvictoria.com.au/resource/best-practice-guidelines-for-live-music-venues/sexual-harassment/

Pile Rats (2021) In a toxic music industry, we need more people like Jaguar Jonze Retrieved from http://pilerats.com/written/deep-meaningful/jaguar-jonze-the-project-interview-feature/

Raine, S., & Strong, C. (2019). Towards gender equality in the music industry : education, practice and strategies for change (First edition. ed.). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Reid, P. (2021) Four women allege rape and assault as new research shows breadth of Australian music’s #MeToo plight. Retrieved from https://theindustryobserver.thebrag.com/four-women-allege-rape-and-assault-australia-music/

Roberts, M., & Eldridge, A. (2009). Planning the night-time city. London New York: Routledge.

Sardelich, R. (2021) How can we think more creatively about supporting our artists wellbeing? Retrieved from https://theindustryobserver.thebrag.com/artists-wellbeing-op-ed/?fbclid=IwAR02AU6WHBYdlTQVBPQmwo4B3IzvMmIvhA_WTPey0sLwhKdhNeXhWoSVbdg

Screen Australia. (2020) SCREEN AUSTRALIA ANNOUNCES NEW GENDER MATTERS TASKFORCE. Retrieved from https://www.screenaustralia.gov.au/sa/media-centre/news/2020/02-27-new-gender-matters-taskforce

Seijas, A., & Gelders, M. M. (2021). Governing the night-time city: The rise of night mayors as a new form of urban governance after dark. Urban studies (Edinburgh, Scotland), 58(2), 316–334. doi:10.1177/0042098019895224

Sikweyiya, Y., & Jewkes, R. (2012). Perceptions and experiences of research participants on gender-based violence community based survey: Implications for ethical guidelines. PLoS One, 7(4), e35495-e35495. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035495

Sikweyiya, Y., Jewkes, R., & Dartnall, E. (2013). Men’s perspectives on participating in violence against women perpetration research. Agenda (Durban), 27(1), 40–48. doi:10.1080/10130950.2013.798960

Strong, C., & Morris, E. (2016). ‘’Spark and Cultivate’’: LISTEN and Grassroots Feminist Activism in the Melbourne Music Scene. 3(1), 108–117. doi:10.1558/jwpm.v3i1.31135

Summers, A. (1975). Damned whores and God’s police : the colonization of women in Australia. London Harmondsworth: Allen Lane Penguin.

The Men’s Project. (2019) . Engaging men in efforts to end violence against women remains critical Retrieved from https://jss.org.au/engaging-men-in-efforts-to-end-violence-against-women-remains-critical/#

The Project. (2021) Music’s Me Too Moment Arrives As Young Artist Fights Back Against Bullying And Sexual Harassment Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AJXlxzjbcO0

Victorian Government. (2021) Understanding intersectionality. Definition of intersectionality and how it can lead to overlapping of discrimination and marginalisation. Retrieved from https://www.vic.gov.au/understanding-intersectionality

West Australian Music (WAM). (2020) WAM Launches Fair Play WA Report Retrieved from https://wam.org.au/wam-launches-fair-play-wa-report/

Governance | Leadership | Advocacy | Strategy | Research | Undergraduate at UQ | music, books, conversation, alchemy, justice and champagne

Governance | Leadership | Advocacy | Strategy | Research | Undergraduate at UQ | music, books, conversation, alchemy, justice and champagne